Lifestyle[ edit ] A combination of improved diet and exercise appears to be the most efficient way to manage NAFLD and reduce insulin resistance. Similar physical activities and diets are advisable for overweight people with NAFLD as for other obese and overweight people. Since both effectively reduce liver fat, the choice of activity can be tailored to fit the individual's preferences with the goal of maintaining in the long-term:
General Concepts Viral hepatitis has emerged as a major public health problem throughout the world affecting several hundreds of millions of people.
Viral hepatitis is a cause of considerable morbidity An analysis of the characteristics of the hepatitis b disease mortality in the human population, both from acute infection and chronic sequelae which include, in the case of hepatitis B, C and D, chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Hepatocellular carcinoma which is one of the ten most common cancers worldwide, is closely associated with hepatitis B, and at least in some regions of the world with hepatitis C virus.
The hepatitis viruses include a range of unrelated and often highly unusual human pathogens. Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A virus HAVclassified as hepatovirus, is a small, unenveloped symmetrical RNA virus which shares many of the characteristics of the picornavirus family, and is the cause of infectious or epidemic hepatitis transmitted by the fecal-oral route.
Hepatitis B virus is endemic in the human population and hyperendemic in many parts of the world. A number of variants of this virus have been described. Natural hepadna virus infections also occur in other mammals including woodchucks, beechy ground squirrels and ducks.
Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis C virus HCVis an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus which appears to be distantly related possibly in its evolution to flaviviruses, although hepatitis C is not transmitted by arthropod vectors.
Several genotypes have been identified. Infection with this more recently identified virus is common in many countries. Hepatitis C virus is associated with chronic liver disease and also with primary liver cancer in some countries.
This virus requires hepadna virus helper functions for propagation in hepatocytes, and is an important cause of acute and severe chronic liver damage in many regions of the world.
Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis E virus HEVthe cause of enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis, is another non-enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus, which shares many biophysical and biochemical features with caliciviruses. The most similar genome to HEV is found in a plant virus, beet necrotic yellow vein virus, and there are similarities in the functional domains to rubella virus.
Final taxonomic classification is yet to be agreed upon. Hepatitis E virus is an important cause of large epidemics of acute hepatitis in the subcontinent of India, Central and Southeast Asia, the Middle East, parts of Africa and elsewhere.
The GB hepatitis viruses were cloned recently and preliminary genomic characterization shows that they are related to other positive-stranded RNA viruses with local regions of sequence identity with various flaviviruses.
Phylogenetic analysis of genomic sequences showed that these viruses are not genotypes of the hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis A Outbreaks of jaundice have been frequently described for many centuries and the term infectious hepatitis was coined in to describe the epidemic form of the disease.
Hepatitis A virus HAV is spread by the fecal-oral route and continues to be endemic throughout the world and hyperendemic in areas with poor standards of sanitation and hygiene. For example, an outbreak of hepatitis A associated with the consumption of clams in Shanghai in resulted in almostcases.
Hepatitis A has an incubation period of about four weeks. The virus replicates in the liver. Relatively large quantities of virus are shed in the feces during the incubation period before the onset of clinical symptoms, and a brief viremia occurs.
The severity of illness ranges from the asymptomatic to anicteric or icteric hepatitis. The virus is non-cytopathic when grown in cell culture. Its pathogenicity in vivo, which involves necrosis of parenchymal cells and histiocytic periportal inflammation, may be mediated by cellular immune responses.
By the time of onset of symptoms, excretion of virus in the feces has declined and may have ceased and anti-HAV IgM increases in titer. Distinctive properties Electron microscopic examination of concentrates of filtered fecal extracts from patients during the early stages of infection reveals 27 nm icosahedral particles typical of the Picornaviridae Fig.
HAV was classified in in the genus Enterovirus as enterovirus 72 of the family Picornaviridae, on the basis of its biophysical and biochemical characteristics, including stability at low pH.
After the entire nucleotide sequence of the viral genome was determined, comparison with other picornavirus sequences revealed limited homology to the enteroviruses, and the virus is now considered as a separate genus, hepatovirus. Figure Hepatitis A virus particles found in fecal extracts by immunoelectron microscopy.
Both full and empty particles are present. The virus is 27 to 29 nm in diameter. A single, large open reading frame ORF occupies most of the genome and encodes a polyprotein with a theoretical molecular mass of MrThe HAV polyprotein is processed to yield the structural located at the amino-terminal end and non-structural viral polypeptides.
Many of the features of replication of the picornaviruses have been deduced from studies of prototype enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, in particular poliovirus type 1. Pathogenesis The clinical expression of infection with hepatitis A virus varies considerably, ranging from subclinical, anicteric, and mild illnesses in children to the full range of symptoms with jaundice in adults.
The ratio of anicteric to icteric illnesses varies widely, both in individual cases and in outbreaks. Hepatitis A virus enters the body by ingestion and intestinal infection. The virus then spreads, probably by the bloodstream, to the liver, a target organ.
Large numbers of virus particles are detectable in feces during the incubation period, beginning as early as 10—14 days after exposure and continuing, in general, until peak elevation of serum aminotransferases.
Virus is also detected in feces early in the acute phase of illness, but relatively infrequently after the onset of clinical jaundice. Interestingly, antibody to hepatitis A virus that persists is also detectable late in the incubation period, coinciding approximately with the onset of biochemical evidence of liver damage.Molecular characteristics of Hepatitis B and chronic liver disease in a cohort of HB carriers from Bamako, Mali.
Short-Oligonucleotide Fragment Analysis (SOMA), history of liver disease and hepatitis. A third sample was obtained from subjects .
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, watery liquid that flows around the brain and spinal cord, surrounding and protecting them. A CSF analysis is a group of tests that evaluate substances in CSF in order to diagnose conditions affecting the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system).CSF is formed and secreted by the choroid plexus, a special tissue that has many blood vessels and that.
Background: Vaccination, screening, and linkage to care can reduce the burden of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, recommendations vary among organizations, and their implementation has been suboptimal. Hepatitis B Virus: Contents.
Overview. Transmission. Pathogenesis. Characteristics of Infection. Risks & Prevention. Treatment. Characteristics of Infection: The virus mostly attacks liver parenchymal ashio-midori.com to 30% of infected people show no symptoms, and symptoms are even less common in children.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistently infects million people worldwide and can induce a spectrum of acute and chronic liver diseases.
Based on sequence divergence in the entire genome of >8%, HBV has been classified into six genotypes named with capital letters A through F (A-F) (19, 22). INTRODUCTION. Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a range of hepatic manifestations and takes a significant toll on human health throughout the world .In the United States, the burden of alcoholic hepatitis is increasing .Hepatic manifestations include alcoholic fatty liver disease (with or without steatohepatitis), alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis.