Often uncared for, he nearly drowned because no one was watching him as he played near a pond. This began to shape in his young mind an early fear of God. In this, the Paris Parlement rose against the crown.
As the absolute rule of kings weakened, Enlightenment philosophers argued for different forms of democracy. The war ended with the beheading of the king. Shortly after Charles was executed, an English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes —wrote Leviathana defense of the absolute power of kings. The title of the book referred to a leviathan, a mythological, whale-like sea monster that devoured whole ships.
Hobbes likened the leviathan to government, a powerful state created to impose order. Every person was free to do what he or she needed to do to survive.
The only way out of this situation, Hobbes said, was for individuals to create some supreme power to impose peace on everyone.
Hobbes borrowed a concept from English contract law: The sovereign, created by the people, might be a person or a group. The sovereign would make and enforce the laws to secure a peaceful society, making life, liberty, and property possible.
Placing all power in the hands of a king would mean more resolute and consistent exercise of political authority, Hobbes argued. Hobbes also maintained that the social contract was an agreement only among the people and not between them and their king.
Once the people had given absolute power to the king, they had no right to revolt against him.
He feared religion could become a source of civil war. In any conflict between divine and royal law, Hobbes wrote, the individual should obey the king or choose death. But the days of absolute kings were numbered. A new age with fresh ideas was emerging—the European Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers wanted to improve human conditions on earth rather than concern themselves with religion and the afterlife.
Enlightenment philosophers John Locke, Charles Montesquieu, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau all developed theories of government in which some or even all the people would govern. These thinkers had a profound effect on the American and French revolutions and the democratic governments that they produced.
Locke studied science and medicine at Oxford University and became a professor there. This event reduced the power of the king and made Parliament the major authority in English government. InLocke published his Two Treatises of Government. He generally agreed with Hobbes about the brutality of the state of nature, which required a social contract to assure peace.
But he disagreed with Hobbes on two major points. First, Locke argued that natural rights such as life, liberty, and property existed in the state of nature and could never be taken away or even voluntarily given up by individuals.
Locke also disagreed with Hobbes about the social contract. For him, it was not just an agreement among the people, but between them and the sovereign preferably a king. According to Locke, the natural rights of individuals limited the power of the king.
The king did not hold absolute power, as Hobbes had said, but acted only to enforce and protect the natural rights of the people.
If a sovereign violated these rights, the social contract was broken, and the people had the right to revolt and establish a new government. Although Locke spoke out for freedom of thought, speech, and religion, he believed property to be the most important natural right.
He declared that owners may do whatever they want with their property as long as they do not invade the rights of others.
Locke favored a representative government such as the English Parliament, which had a hereditary House of Lords and an elected House of Commons. But he wanted representatives to be only men of property and business.
Consequently, only adult male property owners should have the right to vote. Locke was reluctant to allow the propertyless masses of people to participate in government because he believed that they were unfit.
The executive prime minister and courts would be creations of the legislature and under its authority.
Montesquieu was born into a noble family and educated in the law.Spanish Succession, War of the (–14) Last of the series of wars fought by European coalitions to contain the expansion of France under Louis XIV. It was precipitated by the death of the Spanish king, Charles II, without an heir.
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A Comparison of the Characteristics of the Absolutist Rule of Charles I of England and Louis XIV of France Words | 7 Pages France became Europe's superpower in the 's. The Man in the Iron Mask (French: L'Homme au Masque de Fer; c. – 19 November ) is the name given to an unidentified prisoner who was arrested in or and subsequently held in a number of French prisons, including the Bastille and the Fortress of Pignerol (modern Pinerolo, Italy).
In Charles II and Louis XIV signed the Treaty of Dover. In the treaty Louis XIV agreed to give Charles a yearly pension. In the treaty Louis XIV agreed to give Charles a yearly pension.
A further sum of money would be paid once Charles announced to the . A Comparison of the Characteristics of the Absolutist Rule of Charles I of England and Louis XIV of France While both the French and English empires were growing overseas, the modern system of great powers was evolving in Europe itself.