Professor of Moral Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh.
Printer-friendly version In spite of their undeniable differences, Marx and Weber have much in common in their understanding of modern capitalism: Their analysis of capitalism cannot be separated from a critical position, explicit in Marx, more ambivalent in Weber. But the content Rudeness is on the rise essay inspiration of the criticism are very different.
And, above all, while Marx wagers on the possibility of overcoming capitalism thanks to a socialist revolution, Weber is rather a fatalist and resigned observer, studying a mode of production and administration that seems to him inevitable.
The anti-capitalist critique is one of the main force-fields which run across Marx's work from the beginning to the end, giving it its coherence. This does not prevent the existence of a certain evolution: The usual opposition between an "ethical" young Marx and a "scientific" one of the mature years is unable to account for this development.
Marx's anti-capitalism is based on certain values or criteria, generally implicit: The combination among these various human values builds a coherent whole, which one could name revolutionary humanism, that functions as the main guiding principle for the ethical condemnation of the capitalist system.
Moral indignation against the infamies of capitalism is obvious in all chapters of Capital: As Lucien Goldmann wrote, Marx does not "mix" value and fact judgements, but develops a dialectical analysis where explanation, comprehension and evaluation are rigorously inseparable.
As Marx clearly asserted in his preface to Capital, this class perspective is at the root of his critique of bourgeois political economy.
It is from this social viewpoint that values as "justice" are reinterpreted: It is on the light of the hypothesis -- or the wager, according to Lucien Goldmann -- of a free association of producers that the negative features of capitalism appear in all their enormity.
The existence of these values does not mean that Marx holds a Kantian perspective, opposing a transcendental ideal to the existing reality: Marx's anti-capitalist critique is organized around five fundamental issues: Let us examine briefly these issues, emphasizing the less known ones: The capitalist system is based, independently of this or that economic policy, on the workers' unpaid surplus labour, source, as "surplus value," of all the forms of rent and profit.
The extreme manifestations of this social injustice are the exploitation of children, starvation wages, inhuman labor hours, and miserable life conditions for the proletarians.
But whatever the worker's condition at this or that historical moment, the system itself is intrinsically unjust, because it is parasitic and exploits the labor force of the direct producers.
This argument takes a central place in Capital and was essential in the formation of the Marxist labor movement. In the capitalist mode of production, the individuals -- and in particular the laborers -- are submitted to the domination of their own products, which take the form of autonomous fetishes idols and escape their control.
This issue is extensively dealt with in Marx's early writings, but also in the famous chapter on commodity fetishism in Capital. The same happens in religion. The more man puts things in God, the less he keeps in himself. It is not by chance that liberation theologians, such as Hugo Assmann, Franz Hinkelammert and Enrique Dussel, extensively quote from Marx's writings against capitalist alienation and commodity fetishism in their denunciation of the "market idolatry.
Capitalism, regulated by exchange value, the calculation of profits and the accumulation of capital, tends to dissolve and destroy all qualitative values: Having replaces Being, and only subsists the monetary payment -- the cash nexus according to the famous expression of Carlyle which Marx takes up -- and the " icy waters of egoistic calculation" Communist Manifesto.
Now, the struggle against quantification and Mammonism -- another term used by Carlyle -- is one of the key loci of Romanticism.
At last, the time has come in which all that human beings had considered as inalienable has become the object of exchange, of traffic, and may be alienated. It is a time when the very things which before were conveyed, but never bartered; given, but never sold; conquered, but never purchased -- virtue, love, opinion, science, conscience etc.
It is a time of generalized corruption, universal venality or, to speak in terms of political economy, the time when anything, moral or physical, receives a venal value, and may be taken to market to be appraised for its appropriate value. The periodical crises of overproduction that shake the capitalist system reveal its irrationality -- "absurdity" is the term used in the Manifesto: This global irrationality is not contradictory, of course, with a partial and local rationality, at the level of the production management of each factory.
To some extent, capitalism is the bearer of historical progress, particularly by the exponential development of the productive forces, creating therefore the material conditions for a new society, a world of freedom and solidarity.Jun 29, · Disrespect and rudeness in the workplace fall under civility policies in employee handbooks.
The relevant rules need to be followed to keep team morale and productivity at high levels. Below is an essay on "Rudeness" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples.
Academy of Management Executive, , Vol. 19, No. 1 Public polls suggest that incivility is on the rise. In a recent survey of more than 2, respondents, nearly four out of five believe that lack of respect and courtesy is /5(1).
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The co-worker may feel as if the employee is rude or lacks the authority to deal with her in such a straightforward manner. Different Values Similar to personalities, the values of employees.
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Feb 15, · Rudeness, then, needs to serve as a barrier to action. It is what separates thought from deed; it is the moment when wrongdoing can be identified, in time to stop the wrong from having to occur.