Individual[ edit ] The formalization of constructivism from a within-the-human perspective is generally attributed to Jean Piaget, who articulated mechanisms by which information from the environment and ideas from the individual interact and result in internalized structures developed by learners. He identified processes of assimilation and accommodation that are key in this interaction as individuals construct new knowledge from their experiences. When individuals assimilate new information, they incorporate it into an already existing framework without changing that framework. This may occur when individuals' experiences are aligned with their internal representations of the world, but may also occur as a failure to change a faulty understanding; for example, they may not notice events, may misunderstand input from others, or may decide that an event is a fluke and is therefore unimportant as information about the world.
It is learning that takes place intentional or unwillingly in Social educational theories essay. Cognitive psychologist defines learning as the changes in knowledge that can be an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly.
Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information. Individuals learn skills from experiences that tend to take the form of social interactions, linguistic or motor skills. One may ask how does learning happen?
Learning can occur through interacting with others, observing or simply as just listening to a conversation.
Learning happens through experiences good and bad, or ones that can provoke an emotional response or simply offer a moment of revelation. Behaviorist and cognitive theorist believed that learning can be affected by the environment an individual resides but behaviorist focused more on the role of the environment and how the stimuli is presented and arrange and the responses reinforced.
Cognitive theorist on the other hand agrees with behaviorist but tend to focus more on the learners abilities, beliefs, values and attitudes. They believe that learning occurs by consolidation which is the forming and strengthening of neural connections which include the factors organization, rehearsal, elaboration and emotional.
Learning theories are considered theoretical frameworks in describing how information is contain, refined and maintain during learning. Learning is an important activity in the lives of individuals; it is the core of our educational process, even though learning begins out of the classroom.
|Harvard Education Publishing Group||Early years[ edit ] Educational psychology is a fairly new and growing field of study.|
|The Harvard Educational Review Home - HEPG||February When we were in junior high school, my friend Rich and I made a map of the school lunch tables according to popularity. This was easy to do, because kids only ate lunch with others of about the same popularity.|
|Locke, John | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||References and Further Reading 1.|
|An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.||In its simplest form, social learning theory explains how people learn by observing the behavior of others.|
|Theories of Child Development | Essay Example||Constructivism and Social Constructivism in the Classroom General Overview In the constructivist classroom, the focus tends to shift from the teacher to the students. The classroom is no longer a place where the teacher "expert" pours knowledge into passive students, who wait like empty vessels to be filled.|
For many years psychologist sought to understand what is learning, the nature of it, how is it transpired and how individuals influence learning in others through teaching and similar endeavors. Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences.
There are five basic types of theories used in educational psychology which are: Behavioral Theory The behavioral approach is the behavior view that generally assumes that the outcome of learning is the change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of internal events on an individual.
In the behaviorist approach, they believed that individuals have no free will, and that the environment an individual is place in determines their behavior. They believe that individuals are born with a clean slate and that behaviors can be learned from the environment.
The learning theories from the behaviorists Pavlov, Guthrie and Thorndike have historical importance on learning. Although they may differ each theory has its own process of forming associations between stimuli and responses.
Thorndike believed that responses to stimuli are strengthening when it is followed by a satisfying consequence. Guthrie reasoned that the relation between stimulus and responses is established through pairing.
Pavlov, who developed the classical conditioning, demonstrated how stimuli can be conditioned to obtain certain responses while being paired with another stimulus. The behavior theory is expressed in conditioning theories that explains learning in the terms of environmental events but is not the only conditioning theory.
Skinner developed the Operant conditioning; this form of conditioning is based on the assumptions that the features of the environment serves as cues for responding. He believed that we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment.
In operant conditioning reinforcement strengthens the responses and increases the likelihood of the occurring when the stimuli are present. The operant conditioning is a three-term contingency that involves the antecedent stimulusthe behavior response and the consequences.
Operant conditioning involves consequences which can determine how individuals respond to environmental cues.Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? [Michael J. Sandel] on ashio-midori.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. For Michael Sandel, justice is not a spectator sport, The Nation 's reviewer of Justice remarked.
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Compare and Contrast Essay on Teaching and Learning Theories: Behaviorism and Constructivism Modern methodologists put a lot of effort defining the best methodological model for students and for the future perspective. Social Constructivism in the classroom Reciprocal Teaching Where a teacher and 2 to 4 students form a collaborative group and take turns leading dialogues on a topic.
Miscellaneous Sites. ACT Research Home Page- The ACT group is led by John Anderson at Carnegie Mellon University and is concerned with the ACT theory and architecture of ashio-midori.com goal of this research is to understand how people acquire and organize knowledge and produce intelligent behavior.
Three theories of learning are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and the social learning theory.
Each of these different theories has a unique and different approach. Classical conditioning is simply learning by associate of two different stimuli. Learning Theories And Comparison Education Essay.
This work will concentrate on the theories of learning and development: firstly will look at the main principles of Behaviourism in general and Constructivism as described by Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, then it will focus on the impact of these theories in classroom practice, curriculum and child.